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Parenthetical Citations

Use this format when citing references WITHIN THE TEXT of your paper.

Within the text of my paper, how do I cite:

  • a basic reference?
  • using the author's name within a sentence?
  • a work with two authors?
  • a work with no author?
     
A BASIC REFERENCE
APA General Format Give the (Author Lastname, year of publication, p. page#).
APA Example Studies have found that "marriages in which the parents share responsibilites tend to be the happiest" (Levine, 1976, p. 222).
MLA General Format Give the (Author Lastname page#).
MLA Example Studies have found that "marriages in which the parents share responsibilites tend to be the happiest" (Levine 222).
Turabian General Format Give the (Author Lastname year of publication, page#).
Turabian Example Studies have found that "marriages in which the parents share responsibilites tend to be the happiest" (Levine 1976, 222).
 
USING THE AUTHOR'S NAME WITHIN A SENTENCE
APA Example Kearman (1982) reports that from 1967 to 1980, kindergarten enrollment rose by about a third.
MLA Example Kearman reports that from 1967 to 1980, kindergarten enrollment rose by about a third (18).
Turabian Example Kearman (1982, 18) reports that from 1967 to 1980, kindergarten enrollment rose by about a third.
 
A WORK WITH TWO AUTHORS
APA Example Researchers note that education was limited to individualized instruction at religious schools in urban areas (Johnson and Parker, 1998, p.20).
MLA Example Researchers note that education was limited to individualized instruction at religious schools in urban areas (Johnson and Parker 20).
Turabian Example Researchers note that education was limited to individualized instruction at religious schools in urban areas (Johnson and Parker 1998, 20).
 
A WORK WITH NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR
APA Example Hispanics make up an increasingly disproportionate share of the nation's high school dropouts ("Study Finds," 2002, p. 203).
MLA Example Hispanics make up an increasingly disproportionate share of the nation's high school dropouts (Study Finds 203).
Turabian Example Hispanics make up an increasingly disproportionate share of the nation's high school dropouts (Study Finds 2002, 203).